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why ror?
There are lot of advantages of using ruby on rails.
   1. DRY Principal( Don’t Repeat Yourself): It is a principle of software development aimed at reducing repetition of code. “Every piece of code must have a single, unambiguous representation within a system”

2. Convention over Configuration: Most web development framework for .NET or Java force you to write pages of configuration code. If you follow suggested naming conventions, Rails doesn’t need much configuration.
What is Rails?

1. Rails is a extremely productive web-application framework written in Ruby language by David Hansson.

2. Rails are an open source Ruby framework for developing database-backend web applications.

3. Rails include everything needed to create a database-driven web application using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) pattern.
What are the various components of Rail?

1. Action Pack: Action Pack is a single gem that contains Action Controller, Action View and Action Dispatch. The “VC” part of “MVC”.

Action Controller: Action Controller is the component that manages the controllers in a Rails application. The Action Controller framework processes incoming requests to a Rails application, extracts parameters, and dispatches them to the intended action.

Services provided by Action Controller include session management, template rendering, and redirect management.

Action View:  Action View manages the views of your Rails application. It can create both HTML and XML output by default.

Action View manages rendering templates, including nested and partial templates, and includes built-in AJAX support.

Action Dispatch: Action Dispatch handles routing of web requests and dispatches them as you want, either to your application or any other Rack application. Rack applications are a more advanced topic and are covered in a separate guide called Rails on Rack.

2. Action Mailer: Action Mailer is a framework for building e-mail services. You can use Action Mailer to receive and process incoming email and send simple plain text or complex multipart emails based on flexible templates.

3. Active Model: Active Model provides a defined interface between the Action Pack gem services and Object Relationship Mapping gems such as Active Record. Active Model allows Rails to utilize other ORM frameworks in place of Active Record if your application needs this.

4. Active Record: Active Record are like Object Relational Mapping (ORM), where classes are mapped to table, objects are mapped to columns and object attributes are mapped to data in the table.

5. Active Resource: Active Resource provides a framework for managing the connection between business objects and RESTful web services. It implements a way to map web-based resources to local objects with CRUD semantics.

6. Active Support: Active Support is an extensive collection of utility classes and standard Ruby library extensions that are used in Rails, both by the core code and by your applications.
3. Explain about RESTful Architecture.

RESTful: REST stands for Representational State Transfer. REST is an architecture for designing both web applications and application programming interfaces (API’s), that’s uses HTTP.

RESTful interface means clean URLs, less code, CRUD interface. CRUD means Create-READ-UPDATE-DESTROY. In REST, they add 2 new verbs, i.e, PUT, DELETE.
 What is ORM in Rails?

ORM tends for Object-Relationship-Model, where Classes are mapped to table in the database, and Objects are directly mapped to the rows in the table
What is MVC? and how it Works?

MVC tends for Model-View-Controller, used by many languages like PHP, Perl, Python etc. The flow goes like this:

Request first comes to the controller, controller finds and appropriate view and interacts with model, model interacts with your database and send the response to controller then controller based on the response give the output parameter to view.
How many types of callbacks available in ROR?
 What are the servers supported by ruby on rails?

RoR was generally preferred over WEBrick server at the time of writing, but it can also be run by:
Lighttpd (pronounced ‘lighty’) is an open-source web server more optimized for speed-critical environments.
Abyss Web Server- is a compact web server available for windows, Mac osX and Linux operating system.
Apache and nginx
 What do you mean by Naming Convention in Rails.

Variables: Variables are named where all letters are lowercase and words are separated by underscores. E.g: total, order_amount.

Class and Module: Classes and modules uses MixedCase and have no underscores, each word starts with a uppercase letter. Eg: InvoiceItem

Database Table: Table name have all lowercase letters and underscores between words, also all table names to be plural. Eg: invoice_items, orders etc

Model: The model is named using the class naming convention of unbroken MixedCase and always the singular of the table name.

For eg: table name is might be orders, the model name would be Order. Rails will then look for the class definition in a file called order.rb in /app/model directory. If the model class name has multiple capitalized words, the table name is assumed to have underscores between these words.

Controller: controller  class names are pluralized, such that OrdersController would be the controller class for the orders table. Rails will then look for the class definition in a file called orders_controlles.rb in the /app/controller directory
How you run your Rails application without creating databases?

You can run your application by uncommenting the line in environment.rb
path=> rootpath conf/environment.rb
config.frameworks- = [action_web_service, :action_mailer, :active_record
How to use sql db or mysql db without defining it in the database.yml?

You can use ActiveRecord anywhere
require “rubygems”
require “active_record”
               :adapter=> ‘postgresql’, :user=>’foo’, :password=> ‘abc’, :database=>’whatever’})
GET and POST Method?

GET is basically for just getting (retrieving) data, whereas POST may involve anything, like storing or updating data, or ordering a product, or sending E-mai
differ unittest&functionaltest
Unit Test - testing an individual unit, such as a method (function) in a class, with all dependencies mocked up.

Functional Test - AKA Integration Test, testing a slice of functionality in a system. This will test many methods and may interact with dependencies like Databases or Web Services.
What is the difference between Symbol and String?
The symbol in Ruby on rails act the same way as the string but the difference is in their behaviors that are opposite to each other
Strings are considered as mutable objects. Whereas, symbols, belongs to the category of immutable
In Ruby, a string is mutable, whereas a symbol is immutable. That means that only one copy of a symbol needs to be created. Thus, if you have

x = :my_str
y = :my_str

:my_str will only be created once, and x and y point to the same area of memory. On the other hand, if you have

x = "my_str"
y = "my_str"

a string containing my_str will be created twice, and x and y will point to different instances.

As a result, symbols are often used as the equivalent to enums in Ruby, as well as keys to a dictionary (hash).
Ruby variables?

    Local Variables: Local variables are the variables that are defined in a method. Local variables are not available outside the method. You will see more detail about method in subsequent chapter. Local variables begin with a lowercase letter or _.

    Instance Variables: Instance variables are available across methods for any particular instance or object. That means that instance variables change from object to object. Instance variables are preceded by the at sign (@) followed by the variable name.

    Class Variables: Class variables are available across different objects. A class variable belongs to the class and is a characteristic of a class. They are preceded by the sign @@ and are followed by the variable name.

    Global Variables: Class variables are not available across classes. If you want to have a single variable, which is available across classes, you need to define a global variable. The global variables are always preceded by the dollar sign ($).
Difference between Application Server and Web Server
Ans:apache, nginx, IIS are web servers
mongrel, webrick, phusion passenger are app servers

App server is something which works with particular programming language and parses and executes the code
since mongrel and webrick can only work with rails, so they are app servers

Web servers are servers which can take the request from the browser.
Web servers normally works on port 80 though we can change the port in configuration
since mongrel and webrick can take that request directly, so they can be thought of as web servers but web servers do have a lot of other functionality like request pipeline, load balancing etc.
App servers lack these functionalities.

About Mongrel server:
mongrel work as web as well as app server if you are talking about dev environment
but in production, mongrel alone can not work it will be too slow
so we need a web server in front of mongrel


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